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Excerpt Icon Context Assessment
In order for a designer to be sensitive to the projects surrounding environment, he or she must consider its context and physical location carefully during this stage of project planning. Some of these issues to be considered are; the physical... more
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Decision Sight Distance (DSD): Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
AASHTO refers to DSD as "desirable" and "appropriate." Providing DSD is clearly recommended as an element of a high-quality alignment.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Decision Sight Distance (DSD): Mitigating Insufficient Decision Sight Distance
Designers should strive to provide three-dimensional alignments that produce DSD as part of location planning and studies for new alignments, and in considering proposals to add new intersections and interchanges to existing highways.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Horizontal Alignment: Mitigating Tight Curvature
Where acceptance of nominally sharper-than-normal curvature appears to be an appropriate solution, the designer has many tools available to mitigate the potential adverse safety impacts. Widening the road and/or shoulder through the curve and... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Implementation: Maintaining Communication through Construction
An extensive outreach program should continue during construction in order to address stakeholder interest and to communicate any changes in the project.
Transportation Research Board (TRB),
from NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions,2002
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Excerpt Icon Intersection Sight Distance (ISD): Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
Provision for sufficient ISD is recognized in the AASHTO Green Book (2) as important for overall intersection operations. For unstopped approaches, the Green Book (2) notes that the provision of SSD will generally provide sufficient distance for... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Lane Width: Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
The AASHTO Green Book (2) recognizes the need for flexibility and provides that flexibility, citing how lane width can be tailored, to a degree, to fit the particular environment in which the roadway functions (e.g., low-volume rural roads or... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Lane Width: Mitigating Narrow Lanes
The operational and safety effects of lane width are combined with those of other cross sectional elements. Knowledge of the total effects of lane width, shoulder width, and the roadside offers insights into mitigation when less than desirable lane... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Passing Sight Distance (PSD): Mitigating Limited Passing Sight Distance
Insufficient PSD can degrade operations and increase risk-taking by drivers. The effects of insufficient PSD may not be evident or significant except where traffic volumes approach the capacity of the two-lane highway, or where the volume of heavy-... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities: Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
There is significant flexibility in the AASHTO guidelines regarding the provision for and/or design of pedestrian and bicycle facilities. Designers in some instances may choose not to provide separate facilities, or to do so in only one direction of... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Planning for Implementation
Implementation planning involves integrating the selected public involvement activities into the total project scope, schedule, and budget, and obtaining final buy-in from management.
Transportation Research Board (TRB),
from NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions,2002
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Excerpt Icon Right-of-Way, Construction and Maintenance
Maintenance post-construction, involvement of design team in the implementation phase.Once the final designs have been prepared and needed right-of-way is purchased, construction bid packages are made available, a contractor is selected, and... more
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Road Width
The design element with the greatest effect on the scale of the roadway is its width, or cross section. Elements (or a lack of elements) along the roadside also contribute to the perceived width of the road and can even affect the speed at which... more
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Shoulder Width: Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
The AASHTO Green Book (2) suggests flexibility for tradeoffs in lane and shoulder widths provided a minimum roadway width is achieved.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Shoulder Width: Mitigating Narrow Shoulder Widths
Where a "full width" shoulder cannot be achieved, the designer should strive to provide as wide a shoulder as possible that meets functional requirements. A major function of the shoulder is to act as part of the clear zone. Mitigating a narrow... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Sidewalks and Pedestrian Paths
"[Sidewalks accomodate] pedestrians along the traveled way ... [and they are] equally important as the provision for vehicles ... The sidewalk can either be placed flush with the roadside edge ... or next to a buffer area, such as a planted strip,... more
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Article Icon Taking the High Road: The Environmental and Social Contributions of America's Highway Programs

Jobs, mobility, economic prosperity - these are the kind of benefits that we usually attribute to transportation. But theres a lot more to say about the good transportation does, not just for today, but far into the future. Good things... more

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from AASHTO Center for Environmental Excellence,2003
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Excerpt Icon The Most Important Law of the 20th Century
"The 91st Congress enacted the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), considered by many to be the most important law of the 20th century. ...In tandem with NEPA, the 91st Congress also added a new subsection ...focusing on design criteria... more
Transportation Research Board (TRB),
from Context-Sensitive Design: Will the Vision Overcome Liability Concerns?
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Excerpt Icon Vertical Alignment (Grades): Flexibility in AASHTO Guidelines
(..)[T]he information on grades reflects design practices related to cost and operational efficiency. The AASHTO Green Book (2) refers to "reasonable guide values for maximum designs," and further indicates that such guidelines are based primarily... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Vertical Alignment (Grades): Mitigating Steep Grades
Where it is necessary to accept a steeper than normal grade, designers should evaluate the operational effects of the grade on heavy vehicles. The AASHTO Green Book (2) includes a set of design curves that enable estimation of vehicle speeds on... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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