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Article Icon A Guide for Addressing Aggressive-Driving Collisions
"Aggressive driving" is operating a motor vehicle in a selfish, pushy, or impatient manner, often unsafely, that directly affects other drivers. In many cases, the behavior results from interaction between the driver and the driving environment.... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from NCHRP REPORT 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan,2003
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Article Icon A Guide for Addressing Run-Off-Road Collisions
ROR crashes involve vehicles that leave the travel lane and encroach onto the shoulder and beyond and hit one or more of any number of natural or artificial objects, such as bridge walls, poles, embankments, guardrails, parked vehicles, and trees.... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from NCHRP REPORT 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan,2003
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Article Icon A Guide for Addressing Unsignalized Intersection Collisions
Unsignalized intersections represent potential hazards not present at signalized intersections because of the priority of movement on the main road. Vehicles stopping or slowing to turn create speed differentials between vehicles traveling in the... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from NCHRP REPORT 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan,2003
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Article Icon A Guide for Increasing Seatbelt Use
This guide addresses means to increase the use of both seatbelts and child safety and booster seats. For this emphasis area, the phrase "child safety seats" includes all devices intended to protect younger passengers in vehicles, specifically... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from NCHRP REPORT 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan,2004
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Article Icon A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Older Drivers
Older drivers represent a subset of the driving population that deserves special attention. Aging affects a variety of skills needed for safe driving. In particular, the aging population experiences deterioration in physical, perceptual, and... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from NCHRP REPORT 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan,2004
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Article Icon A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Utility Poles
Utility pole crashes are fixed-object crashes that involve vehicles leaving the travel lane, encroaching on the roadside, and striking a utility pole.

Utility poles can also contribute to the severity of other crash types. Many crashes are not... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from NCHRP REPORT 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan,2004
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Article Icon A Guide for Reducing Collisions on Horizontal Curves
The two main objectives for improving safety along horizontal curves are to
1. Reduce the likelihood of a vehicle leaving its lane and either crossing the roadway centerline or leaving the roadway and
2. Minimize the adverse consequences of... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from NCHRP REPORT 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan,2004
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Excerpt Icon Bridges: Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
The replacement or retention of bridges having historic or aesthetic value or the design of bridges on very low-volume roads may justify traveled way widths less than the indicated minimum AASHTO Green Book (2) values. The width evaluation should be... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Decision Sight Distance (DSD): Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
AASHTO refers to DSD as "desirable" and "appropriate." Providing DSD is clearly recommended as an element of a high-quality alignment.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Decision Sight Distance (DSD): Mitigating Insufficient Decision Sight Distance
Designers should strive to provide three-dimensional alignments that produce DSD as part of location planning and studies for new alignments, and in considering proposals to add new intersections and interchanges to existing highways.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Horizontal Alignment: Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
The AASHTO Green Book (2) presents horizontal curve design values for a range of maximum superelevation rates ranging from 0.04 to 0.10. Agencies are free to adopt one or more ranges consistent with their terrain, climate, and other factors. Within a... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Intersection Sight Distance (ISD): Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
Provision for sufficient ISD is recognized in the AASHTO Green Book (2) as important for overall intersection operations. For unstopped approaches, the Green Book (2) notes that the provision of SSD will generally provide sufficient distance for... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Lane Width: Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
The AASHTO Green Book (2) recognizes the need for flexibility and provides that flexibility, citing how lane width can be tailored, to a degree, to fit the particular environment in which the roadway functions (e.g., low-volume rural roads or... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Lane Width: Mitigating Narrow Lanes
The operational and safety effects of lane width are combined with those of other cross sectional elements. Knowledge of the total effects of lane width, shoulder width, and the roadside offers insights into mitigation when less than desirable lane... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Medians: Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
The AASHTO Green Book (2) offers considerable flexibility in the use and design of medians. The Green Book (2) describes operational and safety advantages, provides appropriate widths for different functions, and discusses tradeoffs. The use of... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Pedestrian and Bicycle Facilities: Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
There is significant flexibility in the AASHTO guidelines regarding the provision for and/or design of pedestrian and bicycle facilities. Designers in some instances may choose not to provide separate facilities, or to do so in only one direction of... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Shoulder Width: Mitigating Narrow Shoulder Widths
Where a "full width" shoulder cannot be achieved, the designer should strive to provide as wide a shoulder as possible that meets functional requirements. A major function of the shoulder is to act as part of the clear zone. Mitigating a narrow... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon The Roadside: Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
The AASHTO Green Book (2) is intended to be flexible with respect to roadside design treatments. It refers to the Roadside Design Guide (3) for use in general guidance; as noted previously, there may well be more than one solution that is... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Vertical Alignment (Grades): Flexibility in AASHTO Guidelines
(..)[T]he information on grades reflects design practices related to cost and operational efficiency. The AASHTO Green Book (2) refers to "reasonable guide values for maximum designs," and further indicates that such guidelines are based primarily... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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Excerpt Icon Vertical Alignment (Grades): Mitigating Steep Grades
Where it is necessary to accept a steeper than normal grade, designers should evaluate the operational effects of the grade on heavy vehicles. The AASHTO Green Book (2) includes a set of design curves that enable estimation of vehicle speeds on... more
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officals (AASHTO),
from A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design,2004
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