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Excerpt Icon Approach and Core Principles of CSS Design
"For each potential project, designers are faced with the task of balancing the need for the highway improvement with the need to safely integrate the design into the surrounding natural and human environments. In order to do this, designers need... more
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Considering Scale
People driving in a car see the world at a much different scale than people walking on the street. This large discrepancy in the design scale for a car versus the design scale for people has changed the overall planning of our communities.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Cross-Section Elements: Introduction
Cross-section elements define the highway right-of-way. This section describes each element and related factors effecting the design of the roadway.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Cross-Section Elements: Lane Width
"The width of travel lanes is limited by the physical dimensions of automobiles and trucks to a range between 2.7 and 3.6 m (9 and 12 ft)." Surrounding context and speed are factors determining the necessary minimum lane width.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Cross-Section Elements: Travel Lanes
"The number of lanes needed for a facility is usually determined during the concept stage of project development. It is usually the number of lanes necessary to accommodate the expected traffic volumes at a level of service determined to be... more
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Cross-Section: Restricted Right-of-Way
"Many roads currently exist that were not built to todays standards. These roads may be located in restricted right-of-way corridors that have scenic or historic resources adjacent to the roadway. It is necessary to try to avoid impacting these... more
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Design Controls
Design controls and criteria are the basic elements of roadway design. The two main elements are design speed and level of service, followed by design vehicle and its performance, type of users, traffic volumes and mix of type of vehicles.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Design Speed
"All geometric design elements of the highway are affected by design speed. Some roadway design elements are related directly to and vary appreciably with design speed such as horizontal curvature, super-elevation, sight distance, and gradient. The... more
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Detailing the Design
Particularly during the final design phase, it is the details associated with the project that are important. Employing a multidisciplinary design team ensures that important design details are considered and that they are compatible with community... more
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Elements of a Succesful Process
This is a summary of highway planning process, including public involvement advantages and tools of communication.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Final Design
After a preferred alternative has been selected and the project description agreed upon as stated in the environmental document, a project can move into the final design stage. The product of this stage is a complete set of plans, specifications, and... more
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Functional Classification of Facilities
Functional classification is the process by which roads are grouped into different classes, such as arterial, collector and local roads. These classifications generally represent a trade-off between mobility and land access.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Horizontal and Vertical Alinement
Road Alinements need to be consistent with topography, preserve developments along the road and incorporate community values. The horizontal and vertical alinements are best addressed in the preliminary design phases of the project.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Peak-Hour Level of Service
Level of service is a grading system for amount of congestion, using the letter A to represent the least amount of congestion and F to refer to the greatest amount. The appropriate degree of congestion (that is, the level of service) to be used in... more
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Project Development
After a project has been planned and programmed for implementation, it moves into the project development phase. The basic steps in this stage include the following: refinement of purpose and need, development of a range of alternatives (including... more
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Right-of-Way, Construction and Maintenance
Maintenance post-construction, involvement of design team in the implementation phase.Once the final designs have been prepared and needed right-of-way is purchased, construction bid packages are made available, a contractor is selected, and... more
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Sidewalks and Pedestrian Paths
"[Sidewalks accomodate] pedestrians along the traveled way ... [and they are] equally important as the provision for vehicles ... The sidewalk can either be placed flush with the roadside edge ... or next to a buffer area, such as a planted strip,... more
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon The AASHTO Green Book
AASHTO Green Book contains a general set of guidlines on road design, however, it is not meant to be a design manual. A great deal of flexibility is allowed, and designers are encouraged to tailor roads to particular situations.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon The Design Exception Process
List of criteria for design exception in projects on NHS routes.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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Excerpt Icon Types of Highway Improvement Projects
There are four basic types of physical improvement projects, some of which must comply with standards and others that do not have to comply. These types of improvement projects are discussed in the following paragraphs.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA),
from Flexibility in Highway Design
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