A comprehensive CSS measurement program should be a program that draws on process and outcome measures, and includes both a project-level and an organization-level focus may include a considerable number of measures.
Creating Measures - Leadership and Strategic Planning.
No two CSS
performance measurement programs will be exactly alike, however, two
key ingredients for creating a program are leadership and strategic
Strong leadership and day-to-day management are needed to place a
program on the right footing. Executive management must show
considerable support for the concept from the outset, or resources and
commitment may run out before the work is done and performance
measures are in place. Equally important, measurement programs need a
day-to-day champion capable of orchestrating and managing daily
activities, both during the program establishment phase and during
program implementation. In the measure development phase, a working
group should be created to develop measures and an implementation
framework. The working group will likely include both internal participants
and external stakeholders. Who to involve will depend on agency-specific
political and operating environments.
Measures for CSS should be consistent with any strategic planning efforts
within an agency. Agency "vision/mission" statements generally drive a
small set of broad strategic goals that are achieved by meeting multiple
objectives. Performance measures are often linked to individual
objectives. Agency-wide strategic planning efforts are likely to address
multiple issues, therefore only a handful of objectives may relate to CSS.
The detailed focus of a CSS performance measures program may
necessitate development of more detailed goals and objectives to help
guide the creation of individual measures.
Implementing Measures - A Tailored, Collaborative, Self-Assessment Approach.
An effective CSS measurement program should become an integral component
of every project team's responsibilities. The principles of CSS do not apply only to large projects, and measurement initiatives should include large and small
projects. For example, minor roadway rehabilitation projects may have other
benefits to communities through which they pass if they are used as an
opportunity to address community needs, as well as to ensure smooth pavement.
Likewise, what seems like a minor repaving job could have a significant effect on
the scenic and/or historic qualities of a road if the project includes widening
shoulders or the roadway without addressing the impact on the scenic and
historic qualities. Measurement efforts, however, should be tailored to project
needs and depending on project conditions, a few or dozens of measures may
Many measures of CSS performance, particularly at the project level, are
likely to rely on self-administered surveys of team members and their
stakeholders. In a collaborative environment, all team members should
participate in choosing individual measures that work for their project and
in discussing results. External stakeholders should also be a part of these
efforts. Some of the attributes of CSS for which measurement is desirable
should be considered during the overall project development process. For
example, criteria by which to judge alternatives can be developed to
reflect concepts included in a project Problems, Opportunities and Needs
statement and Vision or Goal statement. This will allow the project team
and external stakeholders to judge alternatives in terms of whether they
will solve the problems and meet the opportunities and needs and
whether they will achieve the Vision or goals.
One or more "charrette" style sessions may be a practical strategy for arriving at
agreement on measure results. A mix of measures that includes consideration of
both qualitative and quantitative attributes of CSS performance is likely to be
appropriate. For qualitative issues, measures can be generated by ranking
responses on a graded scale (e.g. good/bad, 1 to 5, etc.).
Timing of Measures.
Many traditional DOT performance measures are
measured on a regular schedule, such as quarterly or once a year.
Organization-wide CSS measures, such as regular measurement of CSS
training, fit this approach well. Project-level CSS performance measures
are better suited to measurement at project milestones. Project-level
processes can be measured either at project completion, or around key
milestones in the project delivery process, e.g. during initial planning, after
NEPA or key design phases, prior to construction, etc. Project-level
outcomes are generally best measured after project completion.
More Information: www.trb.org/publications/nchrp/nchrp_w69.pdf