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CSS: Access and Mobility

CSS: Access and Mobility
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CSS consider the function of streets and roads relative to their context in terms of access and mobility for all users. Accessibility refers to the "ease with which people can reach destinations", while mobility is "the ease of movement that people experience in moving place to place" - Institute of Transportation Engineers, Smart Growth Transportation Guidelines
It is the balance between accessibility and mobility that often needs to be achieved in CSS projects.

Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Maryland Department of Transportation
MD
This case study is one of nine case studies on accessible pedestrian signals posted by Pedestrian and Bike Information Center. These studies describe experiences of US cities that have installed Accessible Pedestrian Signals. Some of these cities have a long history of installing APS; others have more recently installed APS at one or two intersections. This and each case study includes information on the municipality's history of APS installation, process and procedures, types of devices installed, dates installed, installation, maintenance, and evaluation issues, and contact information.
Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Washington, NJ
Washington, NJ
This case study is one of nine case studies on accessible pedestrian signals posted by Pedestrian and Bike Information Center. These studies describe experiences of US cities that have installed Accessible Pedestrian Signals. Some of these cities have a long history of installing APS; others have more recently installed APS at one or two intersections. This and each case study includes information on the municipality's history of APS installation, process and procedures, types of devices installed, dates installed, installation, maintenance, and evaluation issues, and contact information.
Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Montomgery County, MD
MD
This case study is one of nine case studies on accessible pedestrian signals posted by Pedestrian and Bike Information Center. These studies describe experiences of US cities that have installed Accessible Pedestrian Signals. Some of these cities have a long history of installing APS; others have more recently installed APS at one or two intersections. This and each case study includes information on the municipality's history of APS installation, process and procedures, types of devices installed, dates installed, installation, maintenance, and evaluation issues, and contact information.
College/Chapel District - New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven, CT
"...College/Chapel District, encompasses two pleasant, people-filled blocks with a lively diversified environment. The traditional look and feel of this downtown area gives the impression that it has existed this way for many, many years. Actually, its condition today is primarily the result of the efforts of one private developer, working in cooperation with the city."
Washington SR 99 - International Boulevard
Seattle-Tacoma, WA
International Boulevard is a major N/S arterial that serves local and regional traffic within Seattle-Tacoma, Washington. The Incorporated City of SeaTac developed Comprehensive and Transportation Plans that established land-use goals and proposed transportation facility improvements including the expansion of this boulevard and the improvement of its pedestrian access. This project illustrated well that dealing with multiple, conflicting stakeholders within a constrained budget and schedule is possible as long as the key stakeholders understand the problem, have a clear vision of the solution, employ an open and creative process, and commit themselves to compromise.
Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Portland, OR
Portland, OR
This case study is one of nine case studies on accessible pedestrian signals posted by Pedestrian and Bike Information Center. These studies describe experiences of US cities that have installed Accessible Pedestrian Signals. Some of these cities have a long history of installing APS; others have more recently installed APS at one or two intersections. This and each case study includes information on the municipality's history of APS installation, process and procedures, types of devices installed, dates installed, installation, maintenance, and evaluation issues, and contact information.
Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Newton, MA
Newton, MA
This case study is one of nine case studies on accessible pedestrian signals posted by Pedestrian and Bike Information Center. These studies describe experiences of US cities that have installed Accessible Pedestrian Signals. Some of these cities have a long history of installing APS; others have more recently installed APS at one or two intersections. This and each case study includes information on the municipality's history of APS installation, process and procedures, types of devices installed, dates installed, installation, maintenance, and evaluation issues, and contact information.
Mid-block Crosswalks: School Zone in Olympia, WA
Olympia, WA
This school-zone crossing boasts a staggered, paved crosswalk through a nicely planted pedestrian island. Staggered crossings force pedestrians to look right and face traffic before crossing the second portion of the road.
Mid-block Crosswalks: Bellevue, WA
Bellevue, WA
N.E. 8th St. is a busy five-lane transit corridor with staggered crossing islands at many transit stops.
Mid-block Crosswalks: East Lansing, MI
East Lansing, MI
This mid-block crosswalk traverses a major five-lane boulevard. The 60-100 foot median has a great canopy for waiting pedestrians, with elaborate architectural features.
US Route 101-Lincoln Beach Parkway
Lincoln County, OR
U.S. Route 101 is one of the most scenic highways in the United States; not surprisingly, it serves high local, regional, and tourist travel demands. A major conflict facing the entire Route 101 corridor was the need to provide better access to resort-oriented communities to enhance economic development while balancing the impact of capacity improvements, an issue was particularly acute in Lincoln Beach. Jurisdictions along the highway eventually approved the concept of a Pacific Coast Scenic Parkway to "increase the aesthetic experience, assist in access control, and develop community identity," despite its deviation from typical ODOT design concepts.
Mid-block Crosswalks: City Place, West Palm Beach, FL
West Palm Beach, FL
City Place has one of the nation's most attractive crossings, with lots of pavers, palm trees and other architectural details. Chicanes on both sides of the road create a tropical island for crossing pedestrians.
Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Dunedin, FL
Dunedin, FL
This case study is one of nine case studies on accessible pedestrian signals posted by Pedestrian and Bike Information Center. These studies describe experiences of US cities that have installed Accessible Pedestrian Signals. Some of these cities have a long history of installing APS; others have more recently installed APS at one or two intersections. This and each case study includes information on the municipality's history of APS installation, process and procedures, types of devices installed, dates installed, installation, maintenance, and evaluation issues, and contact information.
Mid-block Crosswalks: Bridgeport Way, University Place, WA
University Place, WA
Bridgeport Way is a busy boulevard with a very thin median. Many of its crosswalks are signal controlled with high quality signs, markings and pavings, and lighting.
Downtown Revitalization and Access Improvements, US-395 - Colville
Colville, WA
The mixture of significant freight and highway traffic on Main Street with its multiple traffic lights and slower speeds has created congestion, noise, and air quality concerns.
Crosswalks: Toucan Crossings, Tucson, AZ
Tucson, AZ
At these half-signal concept Toucan Crossings in Tucson, AZ, motorists stop for short periods to allow bicyclists and pedestrians highly efficient crossings. A pedestrian island, sometimes covered, forces cars to turn right, while allowing safe crossing for bicyclists and pedestrians.
Excerpt IconExcerpt Access Control: Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
Access control is among the most useful tools the transportation agency has to maintain safe and efficient operations. Judicious use of median treatments, driveway permits, and driveway geometry can enhance the operation of the road without undue burden on landowners accessing their property. Achieving access control may mean acquiring the abutting property owner's right of access, limiting future driveways when large parcels are sold or developed, or directing or limiting certain turning movements through geometric restrictions. more...
from  A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design
Article Icon Building a True Community: Final Report of the Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee
The following report is a recommendation for a new national set of guidelines that define the details necessary to make the streetscapes in public rights-of-way accessible to all users. This report has been prepared by the Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee (PROWAAC), convened by the U.S. Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (the Access Board) to address access to public rights-of-way for people with disabilities. The guidelines proposed in this report do not call for a minor adjustment here and there, they ask for a dramatic change from the way public rights-of-way have been designed in the past. However, they do not require dramatic changes to streets that were built in the past. It is important to understand that the recommended standards, if adopted, will apply whenever new streets are created and whenever existing streets are reconstructed or otherwise altered in ways that affect their usability by pedestrians. Implementation of these recommendations will not require jurisdictions to rebuild existing streets solely to meet these standards.
-- Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee, Editorial Subcommittee
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access: Part I: Review of Existing Guidelines and Practices
This report presents the findings of the Phase I study. A number of factors that affect the accessibility of sidewalks and trails in the United States are presented. The history of accessibility legislation and an overview of current accessibility laws are provided as a social backdrop to the study. The travel characteristics of people with disabilities, children, and older adults are analyzed in relation to their use of sidewalks and trails. The effects of current legislation pertaining to sidewalk and trail project planning and funding are reviewed. Current design practices used in the design of sidewalks and trails are described and analyzed in terms of accessibility, engineering, and construction.
--  Federal Highway Administration
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access: Part II: Best Practices Design Guide
This guidebook is the second part of a two-phase project focused on designing sidewalks and trails for access. It was created to provide planners, designers, and transportation engineers with a better understanding of how sidewalks and trails should be developed to promote pedestrian access for all users, including people with disabilities.
--  Federal Highway Administration
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Technical Bulletin: Accessible Parking
This technical bulletin from the United States Access Board answers common technical questions concerning accessible parking. Note: This technical assistance is intended solely as informal guidance; it is not a determination of the legal rights or responsibilities of entities subject to the ADA.
--  US Access Board
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Accessible Rights-of-Way: A Design Guide
This design guide for accessible rights-of-way includes an overview of the Americans with Disabilities Act and best practices in accessible rights-of-way design and construction.
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Pedestrian Access to Modern Roundabouts: Design and Operational Issues for Pedestrians who are Blind
Roundabouts are replacing traditional intersections in many parts of the U.S. This trend has led to concerns about the usability of these free-flowing intersections by pedestrians who are blind and visually impaired.
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Smart Growth - Transportation Guidelines: An ITE Proposed Recommended Practice
This publication "addresses those aspects of smart growth related to transportation--the effects of transportation and land use on each other and the characteristics of transportation systems and services that can encourage and support smart growth. The report primarily contains transportation concepts for accommodating growth and improving quality of life by providing more mobility choices and reducing dependence on personal vehicle use."
--  Institute of Transportation Engineers
Book Icon Book Traffic Calming: The Solution to Urban Traffic and a New Vision for Neighborhood Livability
"Traffic Calming is a holistic, integrated approach based on common sense which seeks to maximize mobility while creating a more livable city by reducing the undesirable side effects of that mobility. One definition of traffic calming is 'environmentally compatible mobility management.'"
-- Citizens Advocating Responsible Transportation (CART)
Excerpt IconExcerpt Make Public Right-of-Way Accessible to All Users: Americans with Disabilities Act
Synopsis of how public right-of-ways are covered by the ADA more...
from  Context Sensitive Street Design
Excerpt IconExcerpt Design Flexibility
"In general, the public more easily accepts the lack of flexibility in motorway design because of the purpose of these roads, mobility is gained at the expense of aesthetic treatment. Greater design flexibility was observed for urban and rural non-motorways that are typically responsive to site-specific conditions." more...
from  Geometric Design Practices for European Roads
Website Icon Website Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Synthesis and Guide to Best Practices (opens in a new window)
This online guide is an interim product for NCHRP Project 3-62, Guidelines for Accessible Pedestrian Signals, which is being carried out under a contract with The University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center under the direction of David L. Harkey (Principal Investor). It provides background information on how pedestrians who are blind or visually impaired cross streets, and how Accessible Pedestrian Signals assist this process.
--  Pedestrian and Bike Information Center
Book Icon Book High Performance Infrastructure Guidelines: Best Practices for the Public Right-of-Way
This publication provides a roadmap for incorporating 'best management practices' into New York City's right-of-way infrastructure capital program.
-- Design Trust for Public Space
Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Charlotte, NC
Charlotte, NC
This case study is one of nine case studies on accessible pedestrian signals posted by Pedestrian and Bike Information Center. These studies describe experiences of US cities that have installed Accessible Pedestrian Signals. Some of these cities have a long history of installing APS; others have more recently installed APS at one or two intersections. This and each case study includes information on the municipality's history of APS installation, process and procedures, types of devices installed, dates installed, installation, maintenance, and evaluation issues, and contact information.
Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Atlanta, GA
Atlanta, GA
This case study is one of nine case studies on accessible pedestrian signals posted by Pedestrian and Bike Information Center. These studies describe experiences of US cities that have installed Accessible Pedestrian Signals. Some of these cities have a long history of installing APS; others have more recently installed APS at one or two intersections. This and each case study includes information on the municipality's history of APS installation, process and procedures, types of devices installed, dates installed, installation, maintenance, and evaluation issues, and contact information.
Accessible Pedestrian Signals: Morgantown, WV
Morgantown, WV
This case study is one of nine case studies on accessible pedestrian signals posted by Pedestrian and Bike Information Center. These studies describe experiences of US cities that have installed Accessible Pedestrian Signals. Some of these cities have a long history of installing APS; others have more recently installed APS at one or two intersections. This and each case study includes information on the municipality's history of APS installation, process and procedures, types of devices installed, dates installed, installation, maintenance, and evaluation issues, and contact information.
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CSS: Access and Mobility
Orenco Station, CA
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