Roads are designed to provide different levels of service for different modes. With CSS, communities and engineers seek balance between the capacity of a road (to handle a specific volume of traffic during a given time period) and other goals and issues of the roadﾒs context. The desired Level of Service, for vehicles, pedestrians, and bicycles, of a road is a design choice.
Road Diets: Mobility and Access Improve "Four-lane roadways significantly discourage mobility and access of transit users (cannot cross these streets), pedestrians and bicyclists. Communities interested in providing higher levels of service and broadening transportation choices, find street conversions essential to success. Cities like Toronto in Ontario, Canada; Santa Monica, Pasadena, Arcada and Mountain View in California; Seattle, Kirkland, Gig Harbor, University Place and Bellevue in Washington; and Portland, Eugene and Bend in Oregon; are finding funds to increase mobility and access by reducing the number of lanes and widths of arterial and collector streets."
Road Diets: Losing Width and Gaining Respect, p. 2
Article / Paper / Report
An Improved Traffic Environment, A Catalogue of Ideas
"The catalogue contains a brief description on the development of the traffic calming concept, the planning process, a short account of what can be achieved by reducing car traffic volume and lowering car speed, introduction of the concept of traffic management by design, the elements of urban space and speed levels - streets and roads, squares, points - from both large and mall towns, cheap and expensive solutions and both wholly and partly implemented schemes. Each example includes a description in text and pictures of the conversion and the results achieved."
-- Lene Herrstedt, Kenneth Kjemtrup, et al., Danish Road Directorate
Flexibility in Highway Design
A guide about designing highways that incorporate community values and are safe, efficient, and effective. It is written for highway engineers and project managers who want to learn more about flexibility available to them when designing roads and illustrates successful approaches used in other highway projects. The guide aims also at provoking innovative thinking for fully considering the scenic, historic, aesthetic, and other cultural values of communities, along with safety and mobility needs.
Federal Highway Administration
NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions
This guide demonstrates how state departments of transportation (DOTs) and other transportation agencies can incorporate context sensitivity into their transportation project development. This guide is applicable to a wide variety of projects that transportation agencies routinely encounter. While the guide is primarily written for transportation agency personnel who develop transportation projects, other stakeholders may find it useful in better understanding the project development process.
Transportation Research Board (TRB)
San Bernardino San Bernardino, CA
"...a vision for the rebirth of downtown San Bernardino, one that builds upon the steady progress of a revitalization effort already in the works and that directly responded to the needs the community revealed."