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Shoulders

Shoulders
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In CSS projects, designers are tailoring the width and materials of shoulder to better fit in with the adjacent context, and eliminating shoulders in urban settings where they are not appropriate.

Excerpt IconExcerpt Cross-Section Elements: Shoulders
"Shoulders increase safety and highway capacity and provide a place for pedestrians and bicyclists when no sidewalks are provided.... The treatment of shoulders is important from a number of perspectives, including safety, the capacity of the highway section, impact on the surrounding environment, and both the initial capital outlay and ongoing maintenance and operating costs. The shoulder design should balance these factors. For example, a designer must consider the impact of the shoulder width and other roadside elements on the surrounding environment and, at the same time, how these dimensions will affect capacity."  more...
from  Flexibility in Highway Design
Excerpt IconExcerpt Cross-Section Elements: Curbs
There are two types of curbs: barrier and mountable. Both in urban and suburban environments curbs serve functions such as drainage control, roadway edge delineation, and right-of-way reduction.  more...
from  Flexibility in Highway Design
Excerpt IconExcerpt Shoulder Width: Mitigating Narrow Shoulder Widths
Where a "full width" shoulder cannot be achieved, the designer should strive to provide as wide a shoulder as possible that meets functional requirements. A major function of the shoulder is to act as part of the clear zone. Mitigating a narrow shoulder can include the provision of an extra-wide clear zone or milder sideslope to partially counteract the loss of the shoulder. The use of traversable ditch designs may also be appropriate where narrow shoulders are used. more...
from  A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design
Excerpt IconExcerpt Shoulder Width: Flexibility in the AASHTO Guidelines
The AASHTO Green Book (2) suggests flexibility for tradeoffs in lane and shoulder widths provided a minimum roadway width is achieved.  more...
from  A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design
Washington SR 99 - International Boulevard
Seattle-Tacoma, WA
International Boulevard is a major N/S arterial that serves local and regional traffic within Seattle-Tacoma, Washington. The Incorporated City of SeaTac developed Comprehensive and Transportation Plans that established land-use goals and proposed transportation facility improvements including the expansion of this boulevard and the improvement of its pedestrian access. This project illustrated well that dealing with multiple, conflicting stakeholders within a constrained budget and schedule is possible as long as the key stakeholders understand the problem, have a clear vision of the solution, employ an open and creative process, and commit themselves to compromise.
Euclid Avenue - Lexington, Kentucky
Lexington, KY
Euclid Avenue is a minor urban arterial and is considered the northern boundary of the University of Kentucky campus. The project involved resurfacing and re-striping of an existing four-lane road into a three-lane roadway with bike lanes over a distance of approximately 0.80 miles. The purpose of this project was improvement of "mobility" needs of the area due to congestion at some intersections along the corridor. Efforts to improve mobility and safety of pedestrians were also incorporated later as a result of public involvement.
Merritt Parkway Gateway Project
Greenwich, CT
Since its opening in 1940, the Merritt Parkway has been recognized not only as an essential component of Connecticut's transportation system but as an asset with unique design features and scenic character. During the 1990s, ConnDOT sought to improve the Parkway's safety and operational efficiency while preserving the road's unique characteristics. This case study illustrates this project and the importance of framework development, being flexible in the use of design criteria, and addressing safety problems with specific actions.
Downtown Revitalization, Safety & Congestion Improvements, SR-14 - Bingen
Bingen, WA
The purpose of this project was to reduce traffic congestion through this section of SR-14, which improved safety and traffic flow (mobility). The city of Bingen needed economic revitalization of the downtown corridor, and anticipated that their efforts to improve the transportation system would result in improved economic vitality.
Maryland Route 355
Montgomery County, MD
Significant regional traffic growth and localized development has resulted in traffic increases along Route 355, a two-lane highway in rural and suburban Maryland. Completion of this mobility-enhancing project required a comprehensive approach involving design creativity, stakeholder involvement, and agency coordination. Stakeholders learned that converting a two-lane highway into a six-lane arterial in a built-up area is no small feat, especially when the conversion is done in a manner in which the finished product fits with the surrounding area.
Maryland Route 108
Olney, MD
Since the mid-1980's, land development around this suburban Baltimore highway has lead to drastic increases in traffic volume. Officials sought to maximize Route 108's capacity and relieve its congestion just as Maryland was developing their "Thinking Beyond the Pavement" approach. As a result, this project contributed greatly to MD's knowledge of Context Sensitive Solutions. The reconstruction of Route 108 resulted in lessons learned about the CSS process and its benefits.
Through Road in Westheim, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany
Westheim,
"In Westheim the many wide-body, armoured vehicles necessitated a special design of the speed reducing devices. The answer was a division of the carriageway into asphalted and cobbled areas."
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Shoulders
WA
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Shoulders
WA
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Shoulders
Greensboro, NC
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Shoulders
NJ
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Shoulders
NJ
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Shoulders
NJ
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Shoulders
Bain-de-Bretagne
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Shoulders
Greenwich, CT
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Shoulders
Aabenraa
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