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Pedestrian facilities include sidewalks and crosswalk or crossing areas. However, use of an area by pedestrians is also influenced by the adjacent land use and whether an area is perceived to be walkable or not.

"Walking and walkability provide a variety of benefits, including accessibility, consumer cost savings, public cost savings (reduced external costs), more efficient land use, community livability, improved fitness and public health, economic development, and support for equity objectives."

Info tab Icon -- Todd A. Litman
Economic Value of Walkability

Article Icon Improving Conditions for Bicycling and Walking
"Encouraging more people to walk and bicycle, and to do so safely involves actions at federal, state, and local levels. The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) provided broad eligibility to use federal funds for these projects."
--  Association of Bicycle and Pedestrian Professionals
Rails to Trails Conservancy

Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Accommodating Bicycle and Pedestrian Travel
"The call for more walkable, livable, and accessible communities, has seen bicycling and walking emerge as an 'indicator species' for the health and well-being of a community. People want to live and work in places where they can safely and conveniently walk and/or bicycle and not always have to deal with worsening traffic congestion, road rage and the fight for a parking space... ...The challenge for transportation planners, highway engineers and bicycle and pedestrian user groups, therefore, is to balance their competing interest in a limited amount of right-of-way, and to develop a transportation infrastructure that provides access for all, a real choice of modes, and safety in equal measure for each mode of travel."
--  U.S. Department of Transportation
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Street Design Guidelines for Healthy Neighborhoods
"A major shift in the way we design neighborhoods is taking place across America and street design is re-emerging as a major element of neighborhood street engineering, town planning and real estate development. These guidelines identify ways to design new neighborhoods that will be more interactive, walkable, enjoyable and livable."
--  Dan Burden
Walkable Communities

Excerpt IconExcerpt Sidewalks and Pedestrian Paths
"[Sidewalks accomodate] pedestrians along the traveled way ... [and they are] equally important as the provision for vehicles ... The sidewalk can either be placed flush with the roadside edge ... or next to a buffer area, such as a planted strip, ... located between the sidewalk and roadside ... Sidewalks can also provide space for street furniture and necessary traffic poles and signals ... The wider the sidewalk, the greater the number of pedestrians that can be accomodated..." more...
from  Flexibility in Highway Design
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Evaluation of Pedestrian Data Needs and Collection Efforts
"Transportation agencies could benefit from direction on how to relate pedestrian demand and behavior data to safety improvements ... The development of a pedestrian data monitoring guide is recommended; an outline is proposed."
-- Wayne D. Cottrell, Dharminder Pal
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Pedestrian Safety through a Raised Median and Redesigned Intersections
Documentation was done on the effect of a raised median, signalized and redesigned intersections, curbs, and sidewalks on vehicle speed, pedestrian exposure risk, driver predictability, and vehicle volume along a four-lane suburban roadway in central New Jersey. The results are that the 85th-percentile vehicle speed fell by 2 mi/h and pedestrian exposure risk decreased by 28 percent. Also, the median allows pedestrians to cross one direction of traffic at a time and signals, curbs, median, redesigned intersections, and striping patterns work together to manage driver behavior. In regard to vehicles, it was found that vehicle volumes were not affected and that vehicle speeds acted independently of vehicle volumes. A collision analysis projected a savings of $1.7 million over the next three years in direct and indirect costs. The goal of the report was to produce a simple and straightforward analysis tool for similar projects in the area.
-- Michael R. King, Jon A. Carnegie, Reid Ewing
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Guidelines and Recommendations to Accommodate Older Drivers and Pedestrians
The increasing number and percentage of older drivers using the Nation's highways in the decades ahead will pose many challenges to transportation engineers, who must ensure system safety while increasing operational efficiency. The 65 and older age group, which numbered 34.7 million in the United States in 2000, will grow to more than 36 million by 2005 and will exceed 50 million by 2020, accounting for roughly one-fifth of the population of driving age in this country. In effect, if design is controlled by even 85th percentile performance requirements, the "design driver" of the early 21st century will be an individual over the age of 65.

In 1998, FHWA published the Older Driver Highway Design Handbook, seeking to provide highway designers and engineers with a practical information source linking the declining functional capabilities of older road users to the need for design, operational, and traffic engineering enhancements keyed to specific roadway features. Early experiences with the recommendations, including extensive feedback from local- and State-level practitioners through workshops conducted for departments of transportation (DOTs) across the country in 1999 and 2000, indicated a need to revise and update this resource. The result is the Highway Design Handbook for Older Drivers and Pedestrians. Recent research has been incorporated, format and content changes have been made to improve its usefulness, guidance on how to implement its recommendations has been added, and the range of applications covered by the Handbook has been expanded.
--  Federal Highway Administration
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Balancing Street Space for Pedestrians and Vehicles
The fundamental issue that must be addressed in the redesign of a commercial street is how to allocate its space. "Balancing" spaces is a concept that is used to describe allotting room for pedestrian needs - encouraging a lively, active public space - while at the same time maintaining appropriate vehicular space for deliveries, parking, local access, and through movement.

Balancing street spaces is both a design and a management problem, because it can be achieved by making physical changes to a street (as by creating a traffic-free mall or widening sidewalks) and by changing regulations, which control street functions. An example of the latter is a street that may be used in different ways during the course of a day: turned over to pedestrians alone from, say, noon until 2 p.m., with full vehicle access permitted the rest of the day. This flexible approach to street improvements requires active day-to-day management to ensure its success.
--  Project for Public Spaces
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Ped Sheds
Walkable catchments, sometimes referred to as "ped sheds," can be mapped to show the actual area within a five-minute walking distance from a neighborhood or town center or within ten minutes from any major transportation stop such as a rail station. Measuring the walkable catchment is simply a technique for evaluating how easy it is to move through an urban area and access neighborhood centers or transit facilities. The resulting maps are visual, highly accurate estimates of an areaï¾’s walkability.
--  Congress for New Urbanism (CNU)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Pedestrian Safety: Analyses and Safety Measures- Report 148
"Walking and cycling are about 7 to 8 times more dangerous per person kilometer than is travel by private car, whereas travel by private car is more dangerous per trip than walking ... Based on a literature study and analyses of Danish pedestrian accidents a list of attained and estimated safety effects for pedestrains ... is presented."
-- Danish Road Directorate, Vejdirektoratet
Article Icon Pedestrians and Bicycles 2003
A compilation of 15 articles on pedestrian and bicycle-related topics including safety, behavior, design, and economics.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Cobblestone Street Interpretive Park
Boonville , MO
As the Missouri Department of Transportation was planning the construction of a new bridge over the Missouri River, a cobblestone street, believed to be the first paved street west of St. Louis, was re-discovered in the town of Boonville. The approach illustrated in this study combined active discussions among the stakeholders involving field investigations, negotiations, and the development of a plan to not only preserve, but enhance the historic resource. Stakeholders agreed upon a plan wherein preservation of the street would be accomplished through development of an interpretative park.
Crosswalks: Half-signal Crossing, Tucson, AZ
Tucson, AZ
Tucson has the greatest variety of successful mid-block crossings in the nation. Pedestrian actuated half-signals allow pedestrians to cross each section of the street separately.
Bridges: Richmond, Virginia
Richmond, VA
A set of slaloms form this unique cable suspended pedestrian bridge, hung between two wide columns.
Shopping Street in Assens
"As part of the 'More Beautiful Streets' project in which the Road Directorate in cooperation with local authorities carry out traffic calming projects with a particular emphasis on the visual environment, the main street in Assens has been converted to a 20 km/h street."
Mid-block Crosswalks: Bridgeport Way, University Place, WA
University Place, WA
Bridgeport Way is a busy boulevard with a very thin median. Many of its crosswalks are signal controlled with high quality signs, markings and pavings, and lighting.
Town Street in Herlev, Denmark
"In Herlev a traffic-dominated town street in an area without any special characteristic unity has been converted to a harmonious town space in which the ancient church and the village pond also have been incorporated as significant elements."
New York City, Mulry Square
New York, NY
Sidewalk extensions, reconfigured crosswalks, and additional greening of the area have helped transform this intersection that was known for pedestrian accidents and high-speed turns. Sidewalk extensions were painted on the street in the short term and outlined with temporary bollards to test the impact of the recommendations on traffic flow. Once it was clear that the solutions worked, the project was built out in final form, with slate pavers, granite curbs, new crosswalks, landscaping, bollards, and changes in traffic light phasing. Capital construction was completed in 2001.
Calabasas, FL
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South Orange, NJ
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Pinellas, FL
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South Orange, NJ
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New York, NY
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