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Transportation Research Board (TRB)

The Transportation Research Board (TRB) is a division of the National Research Council, which serves as an independent adviser to the federal government and others on scientific and technical questions of national importance. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation.

                                                                                                                                 


Contact Details:
Keck Center of the National Academies 500 Fifth Street, NW
Washington DC US

Web Site: www.trb.org
More on this site by Transportation Research Board (TRB) :
Article/Paper/Report
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Technologies to Improve Consideration of Environmental Concerns in Transportation Decisions
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Research Results Digest 304: Technologies to Improve Consideration of Environmental Concerns in Transportation Decisions describes eight technologies that may be used by transportation agencies to help during consideration of environmental concerns in transportation decisions.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report NCHRP Report 552: Guidelines for Analysis of Investments in Bicycle Facilities
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 552: Guidelines for Analysis of Investments in Bicycle Facilities includes methodologies and tools to estimate the cost of various bicycle facilities and for evaluating their potential value and benefits. The report is designed to help transportation planners integrate bicycle facilities into their overall transportation plans and on a project-by-project basis.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report NCHRP Report 554: Aesthetic Concrete Barrier Design
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 554: Aesthetic Concrete Barrier Design provides guidance for the aesthetic treatment of concrete safety shape barriers.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report National Roundabout Conference: 2005 Proceedings
The proceedings of the 2005 National Roundabout Conference, including individual presentations on a variety of aspects related to roundabouts.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Integration of Bicycles and Transit
TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Synthesis 62: Integration of Bicycles and Transit examines how transit agencies may improve their existing services and assist other communities in developing new bicycle and transit services.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report NCHRP Document 69: Performance Measures for Context Sensitive Solutions - A Guidebook for State DOTs
Around the country, groups of stakeholders ranging from local elected officials to citizen activists and interest groups are working hand-in-hand with transportation agencies to create projects that incorporate community values and are safe, efficient, effective mechanisms for the movement of people and goods. Vital to the success of these efforts is a movement among state Departments of Transportation (DOTs) to strengthen holistic, collaborative and inter-disciplinary philosophies for governing the planning, design, construction, maintenance and operation of transportation infrastructure.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report NCHRP Document 69: Performance Measures for Context Sensitive Solutions - A Guidebook for State DOTs
Around the country, groups of stakeholders ranging from local elected officials to citizen activists and interest groups are working hand-in-hand with transportation agencies to create projects that incorporate community values and are safe, efficient, effective mechanisms for the movement of people and goods. Vital to the success of these efforts is a movement among state Departments of Transportation (DOTs) to strengthen holistic, collaborative and inter-disciplinary philosophies for governing the planning, design, construction, maintenance and operation of transportation infrastructure.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Context-Sensitive Design Around the Country: Some Examples
TRB's Transportation Research Circular E-C067: Context-Sensitive Design Around the Country: Some Examples describes Context-Sensitive Design (CSD) projects presented during the 2003 TRB 82nd Annual Meeting. Includes 10 case studies from around the country.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Developing a Preliminary Community Profile Using Hard Data
One of the first and most important tasks in doing CIA is developing a community profile. Community profiling allows us to gain an understanding of the community as a whole, as well as individual neighborhoods within the community and special groups and populations. In general, a community profile involves the following:<br><br> 1. Summarize the Past, Present, and Recently Anticipated Future of a Place<br> 2. Assess Community Trends and Conditions (Past and Current)<br> 3. Take an Inventory of Study Area Features<br> 4. Identify Community Issues<br> 5. Summary of Findings
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Finalizing the Preliminary Community Profile Using &quot;Soft Data&quot; Gathered through Community Involvement
Using soft data and community involvement provides a number of ways to get to know the unique aspects of a community. Basically, soft data is information gathered about the community, its needs, and its values. It might be easiest to define "soft data" by comparing it with "hard data." Hard data is kind of like a layer of bricks, where each brick represents a piece of concrete information, facts and figures. Hard data equates to census data, economics. It gives you a picture of a place at one point in time, and it's not easy to say whether or not you can replicate that data in the future.
--  Project for Public Spaces
Transportation Research Board (TRB)

Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Context-Sensitive Design: Will the Vision Overcome Liability Concerns?
[CSS/CSD] "is a process that results in a transportation project reflecting community consensus on purpose and need, with project features addressing equally safety, mobility, and preservation of scenic, aesthetic, historic, and environmental resources. It involves policy judgments in the balancing of competing interests. "There has continually surfaced a nagging concern, even fear, that increased exposure to tort liability would result should design standards or guidelines be "flexed" because it would mean compromising safety. This lecture addresses this liability concern together with the challenge of balancing safety with other considerations in the design process."
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Integrating Sustainability into the Transportation Planning Process
Integrating Sustainability into the Transportation Planning Process summarizes a July 11-13, 2004, conference in Baltimore, Maryland, that examined whether and how sustainability objectives can be introduced into the planning process for surface transportation facilities and operations. The report explores issues associated with sustainability, the vision of a sustainable transportation system, the state of the practice, and strategies for integrating sustainability concepts into transportation planning.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report The Role of Transit in Creating Livable Metropolitan Communities
This report will be of interest to individuals seeking to improve the livability of their communities and to those concerned with the role public transportation can play in pursuing this goal. The report combines guidelines and case studies to provide a comprehensive approach for improving community livability and transit ridership in the United States. It is directed toward a broad range of individuals and groups in the public and private sectors associated with community, business, and civic organizations, including public transportation providers, local and metropolitan governments, community groups, and private businesses.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Design Guidelines for Safe and Aesthetic Roadside Treatments in Urban Areas
The objectives of this project are to develop (1) design guidelines for safe and aesthetic roadside treatments in urban areas and (2) a toolbox of effective roadside treatments that (a) balance pedestrian, bicyclist, and motorist safety and mobility and (b) accommodate community values. The guidelines will be based on an evaluation of the effects of treatments such as trees, landscaping, and other roadside features on vehicle speed and overall safety. The guidelines will generally focus on arterial and collector-type facilities in urban areas with speed limits between 25-50 mph.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report State of the Practice: White Paper on Public Involvement
Public involvement is the process of two-way communication between citizen and government by which transportation agencies and other officials give notice and information to the public and use public input as a factor in decision making. In the past decade a radical transformation has occurred in the way transportation decisions are made. A new decision model has emerged and continues to be refined. The model assumes that public input into the assessment of transportation needs and solutions is a key factor in most transportation decision making. <br><br> Several factors have contributed to this change. Since the passage of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), there has been a federally mandated emphasis on early, proactive, and sustained citizen input into transportation decision making - with special outreach efforts targeted at traditionally underserved populations. ISTEA's directive was reinforced by the passage of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) near the end of the decade. States and localities have developed protocols and guidelines to interpret these mandates. In widely varying ways, they have transformed their transportation agencies and blended these mandates with local customs and expectations.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Transit-Friendly Streets: Design and Traffic Management Strategies to Support Livable Communities
This report will be of interest to individuals seeking to improve the livability of their communities and to those concerned with the role that local streets and public transportation can play in pursuing this goal. The report presents 10 strategies used in both the United States and Europe to create transit-friendly streets. The strategies are followed by case studies of five communities that have pursued different initiatives to improve their livability by making their streets more transit-friendly. The report culminates with lessons learned from the case studies. The report is very practical and will be useful to transit professionals, transportation planners, engineers, city officials, and local communities.
--  Project for Public Spaces
Transportation Research Board (TRB)

Article Icon Article / Paper / Report International Perspectives on Urban Street Design: Proceedings of the Context-Sensitive Design Workshop
TRB's Transportation Research Circular E-C097, International Perspectives on Urban Street Design: Proceedings of the Context-Sensitive Design Workshop includes four papers that were presented during the 2005 TRB 84th Annual Meeting. The papers explore street design in small European towns; context-sensitive design aspects of arterial streets in Berlin, Germany; and issues relative to historic sites such as Stonehenge in the United Kingdom. The report also includes highlights from a roundtable discussion that followed the paper presentations.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report NCHRP Synthesis 361: Visualization for Project Development - A Synthesis of Highway Practice
TRB's National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Synthesis 361: Visualization for Project Development explores the visual representation of proposed alternatives and improvements and their associated effects on the existing surroundings. The report examines the best practices and experiences within transportation agencies that are developing and incorporating visualization into the project development process.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Environmental Geospatial Information for Transportation
TRB Transportation Research Circular E-C106: Environmental Geospatial Information for Transportation summarizes a May 3-4, 2006, peer exchange that took place in Washington, D.C. The report focuses on environmental stewardship, streamlining, and sustainable growth; the importance of effective collaboration; and building capacity for data management and sharing.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report Aesthetics in the Landscape
TR NEWS January-February 2007<br> Aesthetics in the Landscape: Scenic Highways By Design
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report NCHRP: A Guide for Addressing Collisions with Trees in Hazardous Locations
One of the most common causes of fatal and severe injury crashes, on rural roads in particular, involves vehicles leaving the road and striking a fixed object. Trees are the objects most commonly struck in run-off-road (ROR) collisions, and tree impacts are generally quite severe. This guide provides a comprehensive description of the problem as well as strategies and guides for implementation.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Article Icon Article / Paper / Report TCRP Synthesis 86: Relationships Between Streetcars
<p>This synthesis documents experience with selected streetcar and trolley projects and their relationship with the built environment. There appears to have been a resurgence of such systems in the United States. Their ability to spur growth and revitalization has not been adequately documented, whereas local potential for changes in land use are often used as justification for investment in them. Policymakers and planners seek a better understanding of how this mode of transportation interacts with the built environment. The report examines selected, built streetcar and trolley systems to trace their evolution, define significant factors, and identify commonalities among levels of success in impacting the built environment.</p> <p>This report presents an initial overview of published literature; a summary of an indepth telephone survey of 13 of the 14 currently operating U.S. streetcar systems, a 93% response rate; and case studies of five systems with more details on the state of current knowledge and specific relationships of streetcars to their own built environments. </p>
--  Federal Transit Administration
Transportation Research Board (TRB)

Book
Book Icon Book NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions
This guide demonstrates how state departments of transportation (DOTs) and other transportation agencies can incorporate context sensitivity into their transportation project development. This guide is applicable to a wide variety of projects that transportation agencies routinely encounter. While the guide is primarily written for transportation agency personnel who develop transportation projects, other stakeholders may find it useful in better understanding the project development process.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Case Study
Converting Highways into Streets and Avenues
West Hartford, CT
Increasingly, localities around the country are beginning to realize the importance of converting urban highways into streets, avenues, and boulevards. The initial focus has been on restoring downtown main streets. States leading this trend include New Jersey, Maryland, and California. Our case studies, from Connecticut and Georgia, exemplify a second wave in this movement: the conversion of neighborhood highways into urban avenues. Details of our case studies from West Hartford, Connecticut, and Savannah, Georgia, are discussed.
Cobblestone Street Interpretive Park
Boonville , MO
As the Missouri Department of Transportation was planning the construction of a new bridge over the Missouri River, a cobblestone street, believed to be the first paved street west of St. Louis, was re-discovered in the town of Boonville. The approach illustrated in this study combined active discussions among the stakeholders involving field investigations, negotiations, and the development of a plan to not only preserve, but enhance the historic resource. Stakeholders agreed upon a plan wherein preservation of the street would be accomplished through development of an interpretative park.
The Sixteenth Street Transitway: Twenty Years of Public-Private Partnership and Reinvestment
Denver, CO
Denver's 16th Street Transit Mall - a mile-long transit way and public promenade lined with trees, shops, and restaurants - serves as a transit and pedestrian thoroughfare and demonstrates how a transit partnership can help create a livable metropolitan area. Exemplifying elements of innovative transportation services, high-quality design, and attention to management detail, the mall is an integral part of downtown Denver, nationally known as one of the most attractive and economically viable city centers in the country. The Downtown Denver Business Improvement District, originally called the 16th Street Mall Management District, is a public/ private partnership that maintains the mall. Over 45,000 transit passengers use the mall daily and 45,000 pedestrians walk portions of the mall.
Main Street, Rochester
Rochester, NY
The primary motivation for redesigning Rochester's Main Street was to alleviate sidewalk congestion, which was negatively affecting area businesses and the quality of Main Street as a place to shop, walk, catch the bus, and work. The sidewalks along Main Street simply were not wide enough to accommodate the volume of transit users walking to and waiting for buses as well as the large number of pedestrians in the downtown area. Lacking adequate shelter as well, bus patrons often sought protection from the weather under store awnings and in business entranceways. &lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt; The original concept for Main Street was a transit mall with covered sidewalks, a solution deemed both too costly and, after visits to other cities with transit malls, inappropriate for a street with a still vital retail business. Instead, the city of Rochester and the Rochester-Genesee Regional Transportation Authority (R-GRTA) - working in partnership with the business community - adopted a plan to take advantage of the wide, underutilized street. Elaborate bus waiting areas and other pedestrian amenities were located on widened sidewalks, with the street kept open to private cars and commercial vehicles. Transit efficiency was addressed by making the two curb lanes for buses and right turns only; normal traffic was restricted to the two central lanes.
U.S. Route 3
Port Ontario, NY
U.S. Route 3 runs north-south between the shore of the east end of Lake Ontario and Interstate 81 in New York State. Route 3 is a two-lane rural highway that passes through many old downtowns and small villages. The route is part of the Seaway Trail, a national scenic byway, and is also part of a state bicycle route. This particular project consisted of reconstruction and improvements along a 1.1-km section in the village of Port Ontario, town of Richland, Oswego County. The project included the replacement of two bridges over the mouth of the Salmon River, intersection improvements, accommodation of bicycles and pedestrians and general improvements in geometric standards. The location where Route 3 crosses the Salmon River in Port Ontario is approximately 1 mile upstream of Lake Ontario and is approximately 1,500 ft.
Mannsdale Road, Mississippi Route 463
Jackson, MS
Mannsdale Road is located west of the city of Madison northwest of Jackson, Mississippi. The road is about 8 mi long and is currently two lanes wide. Land use varies significantly along the short project length. Light commercial is prevalent at the beginning near the Interstate and shifts to existing and developing suburban areas along the middle of the corridor. The end of the project is primarily rural with very low density residential and agricultural uses. Most of the project area is rich in history with two early town areas, a former plantation, and two 150-year-old church congregations. To date, the local residents have been successful in influencing the character of the growth in the culturally rich area. Realizing the cultural significance of the area, the Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) and the FHWA determined that the project should be developed following the principles of CSD. MDOT has chosen to implement and develop context sensitive solutions by utilizing the NEPA process. A multidisciplined project team was assembled to see the project from initial concept through the NEPA phase. Currently, the design team and the public have reached general consensus and are advancing two build alternatives through the NEPA process. Early in the project a Citizen's Advisory Team (CAT) was assembled to represent the citizens in the corridor and work with the project development team to see that the project addressed citizens' concerns.
Towson Roundabout
Towson, MD
Towson, Maryland is a suburb of Baltimore, Maryland. Near the central part of the Towson business district, four major arterials converge at a single location. The awkward, multi-leg signalized intersection caused congestion and safety problems. In addition, the business community and City of Towson sought improvements to the economic viability of the downtown and believed that economic improvements were directly related to traffic improvements. A number of alternatives were developed, and eventually, a signalized roundabout, relatively new to the U.S. at the time, emerged as the preferred solution. The roundabout and streetscape project are considered a major success and are a source of local pride in the town of Towson.
NW 23rd Avenue
Portland, OR
The motivation for adding curb extensions to three bus stops along NW 23rd Avenue was to address problems with pedestrian congestion and transit operations on this busy but narrow street. (...)
Davis Square
Somerville, MA
Somerville, Massachusetts, the most densely populated streetcar suburb in New England, is home to 76,000 people. In 1973, Davis Square, one of the cityメs largest central squares and a traditional commercial center, was selected as the location for a new station on the Red Line T (subway), using a former freight rail line that bisected the community. While the station was being planned, the city and the community developed a visionary strategy to radically transform the streets and pedestrian access to the square, provide additional on-street parking, improve its visual appearance, and create opportunities for new development.
Upper Market Street
San Francisco, CA
&lt;i&gt;You need to consider the balance of traffic, transit and pedestrians. The lesson is if you exclude one of those elements from a community, or you put it in the wrong place, or you give too much turf to one mode or another, you'll have a problem. But if you get the right balance, you'll be successful. -Focus group participant&lt;/i&gt; &lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt; The Upper Market Street project was not a single project driven by a single planning process or goal. Rather, the street was redesigned incrementally over time, building on earlier decisions and through continued negotiations over the con- figuration, function, and balance of uses appropriate for such an important transportation artery.
Main Street and the Blake Transit Center
Ann Arbor, MI
&lt;i&gt;We need to encourage people to spend more time downtown, not move through quickly. By widening the sidewalks or adding diagonal parking or taking a look at two-way traf- fic again, it would have some impact on the Blake Transit Center. People would think about it differently - not just as transportation but as a destination. -Focus Group Participants&lt;/i&gt; &lt;br&gt;&lt;br&gt; Ann Arbor, Michigan, is a quintessential university town with a population of 100,000, including a university population of 30,000. Whereas other midwestern cities have experienced suburban flight, the sizable student population has helped the downtown area sustain a strong pedestrian and transit orientation. Main Street, always the historic heart of the city, has received new vitality in recent years with reinvestment in the older commercial buildings and their adaptive reuse as retail shops and services. This investment was made possible in part by a 25-year commitment to caring for and preserving downtown as the city's prime retail corridor and historic center - a commitment that, by necessity, favors people over cars.
US route 6-Brooklyn, CT
Brooklyn, CT
U.S. Route 6 is the primary regional arterial carrying east-west traffic between Hartford, Connecticut, and Providence, Rhode Island, and it passes through the Town of Brooklyn about half way between the two cities. Problems to be addressed included replacement of the pavement that had deteriorated due to heavy truck traffic, improvements to the alignment to address safety problems, and improvements to the cross section to facilitate safe operations. Connecticut DOT staff used visualization techniques for one of the first times to help depict designs and discuss alternatives with the townspeople.
Kentucky Proposed I-66
KY
In 1997, the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet (KYTC) completed a study that concluded that the Southern Kentucky Corridor (I-66) was feasible. The Somerset to London segment of the I-66 corridor is home to many natural, scenic, and sensitive areas. It had two existing linkages both which experienced safety and emerging traffic operational problems typical for their age and design characteristics. While many citizens favored improving KY 192 or at least supported the concept of constructing I-66, there was considerable opposition to the KYTC identified preferred corridor based on concerns with the environmental impacts along the corridor. Based on this opposition, KYTC acknowledged the need to reexamine the criteria and process that led them to identify the initially preferred alternative. Through the new alternatives development process and active stakeholder engagement, KYTC staff ultimately determined that an overall better alignment solution was available. In some respects the project is one of the reasons Kentucky has not only embraced Thinking Beyond the Pavement and Context Sensitive Design but has become a leader.
Los Angeles Neighborhood Initiative: Rebuidling Disinvested Neighborhood &quot;Main Streets&quot; from the Bus Stop Up
Los Angeles, CA
The Los Angeles Neighborhood Initiative (LANI), sponsored by Mayor Richard Riordan, is undertaking a 30-month demonstration project that seeks to provide an economic stimulus to eight transit-dependent neighborhoods through community planned transportation improvements, housing, and commercial rehabilitation, and development. Incorporated in 1994, LANI has established community organizations in each neighborhood and provided technical support, training, and funding for demonstration projects around transit facilities.
Maryland Route 108
Olney, MD
Since the mid-1980's, land development around this suburban Baltimore highway has lead to drastic increases in traffic volume. Officials sought to maximize Route 108's capacity and relieve its congestion just as Maryland was developing their &quot;Thinking Beyond the Pavement&quot; approach. As a result, this project contributed greatly to MD's knowledge of Context Sensitive Solutions. The reconstruction of Route 108 resulted in lessons learned about the CSS process and its benefits.
Maryland Route 355
Montgomery County, MD
Significant regional traffic growth and localized development has resulted in traffic increases along Route 355, a two-lane highway in rural and suburban Maryland. Completion of this mobility-enhancing project required a comprehensive approach involving design creativity, stakeholder involvement, and agency coordination. Stakeholders learned that converting a two-lane highway into a six-lane arterial in a built-up area is no small feat, especially when the conversion is done in a manner in which the finished product fits with the surrounding area.
Washington SR 99 - International Boulevard
Seattle-Tacoma, WA
International Boulevard is a major N/S arterial that serves local and regional traffic within Seattle-Tacoma, Washington. The Incorporated City of SeaTac developed Comprehensive and Transportation Plans that established land-use goals and proposed transportation facility improvements including the expansion of this boulevard and the improvement of its pedestrian access. This project illustrated well that dealing with multiple, conflicting stakeholders within a constrained budget and schedule is possible as long as the key stakeholders understand the problem, have a clear vision of the solution, employ an open and creative process, and commit themselves to compromise.
Merritt Parkway Gateway Project
Greenwich, CT
Since its opening in 1940, the Merritt Parkway has been recognized not only as an essential component of Connecticut's transportation system but as an asset with unique design features and scenic character. During the 1990s, ConnDOT sought to improve the Parkway's safety and operational efficiency while preserving the road's unique characteristics. This case study illustrates this project and the importance of framework development, being flexible in the use of design criteria, and addressing safety problems with specific actions.
Citation
In their report entitled, Lessons Learned in Preparing US 17 Community Impact Assessment, The North Carolina DOT states as the most important lesson learned from preparing this CIA, which included eleven ethnically and economically diverse impacted communities was that "the traditional public involvement techniques used today reduce or eliminate the opportunities for most low income and minority populations to participate in the process. These traditional techniques cater to a segment of the population that is white, English-speaking, middle to upper class, well educated, transportation independent who work an 8:00 am to 5:00 pm job and want meetings in their neighborhoods. They reflect the demographics of the agency/person who was conducting the public involvement and their view that the public they wanted to involve was just like themselves." Read specifics about why these traditional Public Involvement Techniques don't work, alternative techniques that do work, and the need for flexibility to ensure that you are "reaching, involving, and giving voice to the public, THE WHOLE PUBLIC."

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CIA Commitee
Community Impact Assessment



"To be effective, the [public involvement] plan must be integrated with the decision process and it must be strategic."

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Washington DC
NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions



"No two projects are exactly alike, and public involvement tools and techniques should be tailored to reflect the particular character of each project - its group of stakeholders, its geographic location, the successes and failures of previous public outreach programs, the level of complexity and controversy, and so on."<br><br> "Experience on many projects has shown that... project team participation in community- and stakeholder-sponsored activities may yield much more satisfactory results. In many cases, taking the project to the stakeholders, rather than the reverse, increases the likelihood of successful information exchange."

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NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions



Excerpt
Excerpt IconExcerpt Tips for Getting Started
By now readers will understand that this guidebook advocates a rigorous CSS measurement framework that focuses on the processes and outcomes of CSS implementation, at both the project- and organizational-levels. Full realization of such a framework is likely to occur over time. At the outset of their efforts, transportation agencies just beginning to implement CSS may prefer to emphasize project-level measures that are directed to a handful of "pilot" projects. These measures can then be expanded to cover additional projects as implementation efforts grow. Likewise, measures that address processes may hold favor early on during implementation, before measurable outcomes are achieved. more...
from  NCHRP Document 69: Performance Measures for Context Sensitive Solutions - A Guidebook for State DOTs
Excerpt IconExcerpt Visualization
Visualization techniques are used to assist in the decision regarding design choices and can be anything from renderings to photo-simulations. more...
from  NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions
Excerpt IconExcerpt Develop decision process
The purpose of developing a decision process is to ensure complete and accurate identification of the problem, selection of the best alternative, enhancement of agency credibility, and efficient use of resources in short, to ensure that good transportation investment decisions are made. more...
from  NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions
Excerpt IconExcerpt Problem Definition: Confirming and Refining Problem Definition
Initial project decisions begin with development of a list of the transportation problems to be addressed by a project.... The list of problems can then be transformed into a comprehensive need statement. It is critical for this statement to reflect the full range of public values identified through the public involvement process, and to legitimize all of the affected interests without appearing to favor [or promote] one particular solution.  more...
from  NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions
Excerpt IconExcerpt Creating and Implementing a CSS Measurement Program
A comprehensive CSS measurement program should be a program that draws on process and outcome measures, and includes both a project-level and an organization-level focus may include a considerable number of measures. more...
from  NCHRP Document 69: Performance Measures for Context Sensitive Solutions - A Guidebook for State DOTs
Excerpt IconExcerpt Project-Level Measures
The CSS principles mentioned earlier, after all, have their roots in the delivery of individual projects. Furthermore, measurement can initially be piloted on a small subset of projects. Project-level measures provide valuable feedback to stakeholders and project team members. more...
from  NCHRP Document 69: Performance Measures for Context Sensitive Solutions - A Guidebook for State DOTs
Excerpt IconExcerpt Organization-Wide Measures
For many DOTs, performance in program-wide areas of vital importance, such as system preservation or safety, is routinely measured using organization-wide performance measures based on data collected across the agency.  more...
from  NCHRP Document 69: Performance Measures for Context Sensitive Solutions - A Guidebook for State DOTs
Excerpt IconExcerpt CSD/CSS Framework
Steps for successful CSD/CSS projects  more...
from  NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions
Excerpt IconExcerpt Quality of Life
"As in... developing the problem definition, it is critical to ensure that the full range of stakeholder values is reflected in the universe of alternative solutions considered at the outset. This avoids the all too common problems of suggestions for viable alternatives being raised near the end of the process, resulting in a "back to square one" loop of activities [and expense]. <br> "Agencies are... generally less comfortable with attempts to measure the effects of alternatives on issues such as "quality of life" or "community cohesion." These are often viewed as intangible and therefore unmeasurable [sic]. However, they are important issues to stakeholders, they must be tackled head-on."  more...
from  NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions
Excerpt IconExcerpt &quot;Successfully implementing a solution...
"Successfully implementing a solution that was openly arrived at requires great care and a management commitment to follow through. In most agencies, staff assigned to develop the plan are not directly involved in construction. Pilot state staff in many states observed that the hand-off from planning and design staff to construction staff, if not done properly, can result in the negation of carefully developed plans, [relationships], and commitments to stakeholders." more...
from  NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions
Excerpt IconExcerpt CSS Measurement Program Framework
A CSS performance measurement framework boils down to finding the right balance across two simple parameters, 1) measurement of project-level versus organization-wide factors, and 2) measurement of processes versus outcomes. more...
from  NCHRP Document 69: Performance Measures for Context Sensitive Solutions - A Guidebook for State DOTs
Excerpt IconExcerpt Selecting Public Involvement Techniques
To flesh out how the information exchange processes will be conducted, it is important to select tools and techniques to use at particular points in the decision process. more...
from  NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions
Excerpt IconExcerpt Design Speed, Operating Speed, and Posted Speed Relationships
"Concerns arise at locations where the posted speed limit based on an 85th percentile speed exceeds the roadway's inferred design speed. This inconsistency is a result of the fact that criteria used in highway design incorporate a significant factor of safety--that is, roadways are designed for near worst-case conditions."  more...
from 
Excerpt IconExcerpt Identifying Stakeholders
"The first step towards achieving meaningful and effective public involvement in project development involves identifying the individuals and groups likely to be affected by the project, those who have a "stake" in its outcome," those who could get the project stopped if they wanted to, and persons or organizations who could help fund additional complimentary and desirable improvements outside the project right of way." In other words people most likely to support the project or to oppose it more...
from  NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions
Excerpt IconExcerpt Management Structure: Developing a Public Involvement Plan
Steps to developing a public involvement plan. more...
from  NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions
Excerpt IconExcerpt Alternatives Development: Engaging Stakeholders in Identification of Alternatives
"Engage stakeholders in alternative identification. This is the most creative part of the project development process, in which sets of solutions are crafted in response to the problem statement and the evaluation criteria. Alternatives are generally developed through the iterative processes and project team input.<br><br> "Alternatives [can be] generated [at] various events involving stakeholders such as resource agency or advisory group workshops, and public design charrettes. Ideas generated in this fashion are refined by agency technical staff and disseminated broadly for public review and comment. Discussion with staff from pilot states indicated a preference in many cases from their customers to be involved at the beginning. Project successes were attributed to the DOT 'starting with a blank sheet of paper.'" Furthermore, agency/stakeholder collaboration and consultation in alternative development will likely uncover opportunities for enhancing additional, non-DOT resources.  more...
from  NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions
Excerpt IconExcerpt Transit-Friendly Streets
Transit-friendly streets are streets where transit use is made more efficient and convenient and the street is made less efficient and convenient for automobiles while still accommodating them. Transit-friendly streets involve "balancing" street uses rather than having any single mode dominate. There is, in fact, a kind of equilibrium that is achieved among all the uses of a street: transit, car, bicycle, and pedestrian. more...
from  Transit-Friendly Streets: Design and Traffic Management Strategies to Support Livable Communities
Excerpt IconExcerpt Methods and Strategies to Create Transit-Friendly Streets
Communities are working together to integrate transit more effectively into their neighborhood and downtown streets. This chapter explores the broader impacts of this approach and provides an overview of the tools and strategies - as well as planning methodologies - that can be used to replicate the successful aspects of these projects in other cities. more...
from  Transit-Friendly Streets: Design and Traffic Management Strategies to Support Livable Communities
Excerpt IconExcerpt The Impact of Transportation on Livability
When transportation is people-oriented, it can help build communities and restore community life. It can provide the accessibility and exposure that helps develop business. It can allow for entrepreneurial opportunities by molding public spaces and transportation facilities that can nurture start-up enterprises. It can spur the identity and cohesiveness that bring communities together and help them grow and become safer and more attractive. more...
from  The Role of Transit in Creating Livable Metropolitan Communities
Excerpt IconExcerpt Insights on CSD/CSS
Extended definition of context sensitive design and context sensitive solutions. more...
from  NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions
Publication
Article Icon Pedestrians and Bicycles 2003
A compilation of 15 articles on pedestrian and bicycle-related topics including safety, behavior, design, and economics.
--  Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Quote
"The principal objective of speed limits is improved safety, but simply posting a speed limit does not guarantee the desired change in driving speeds or a reduction in crashes or crash severity."

Info tab Icon -- Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Special Report 254, Managing Speed, Review of Current Practice for Setting and Enforcing Speed Limits, p.5

"A key concept expressed by staff from all [CSD] pilot states is to recognize the functional classification of the road or highway... [D]ifferent classes of facility serve distinctly different purposes on the highway network"

Info tab Icon -- Transportation Research Board (TRB)
NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions
Selecting a Design Speed
p. 56

"Agencies are... generally less comfortable with attempts to measure the effects of alternatives on issues such as "quality of life" or "community cohesion." These are often viewed as intangible and therefore unmeasurable [sic]. However, they are important issues to stakeholders, they must be tackled head-on."

Info tab Icon -- Transportation Research Board (TRB)
NCHRP Report 480: A Guide to Best Practices for Achieving Context Sensitive Solutions

"An alternative design approach that attempts to achieve greater consistency among design speeds, actual driving speeds, and posted speed limits is under development in the United States. The idea is to design roads to ensure that driver operating speeds are consistent with a target operating speed."

Info tab Icon -- Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Special Report 254, Managing Speed, Review of Current Practice for Setting and Enforcing Speed Limits, p. 168

"Engineers need the ability to explain their choices... and CSD and Flexibility provide them the tools to say: 'We're not blindly following generally accepted Green Book design criteria. We have considered those criteria and all these other factors.' If you're thinking about the qualitative, the quantitative and thinking about the context, then you've considered much more than you would by blindly sticking to Green Book guidelines."

Info tab Icon -- Jay Smith , Transportation Research Board (TRB)
Chair, TRB Tort Liability and Risk Management Committee; Assistant Chief Counsel, Risk Management for the Missouri Highways & Transportation Commission



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